Availability & Placement Zones

Stackato has two mechanisms for allocating application instances on particular Droplet Execution Agent (DEA) nodes or groups of nodes:

  • Availability Zones: for distributing application instances across groups of servers in different physical locations, network segments, or racks.
  • Placement Zones: for restricting application instances to particular sets of servers.

Both zone types are set in the placement_properties configuration on each DEA node, which can be set with kato node sub-commands.

See also Availability & Placement Zones in the User Guide.

Availability Zones

Setting availability zones allows a cluster administrator to configure Stackato to respect the physical/logical distribution of servers. In this sense, they similar to availability zones or regions in EC2.

If there are multiple availability zones configured in a Stackato system, application instances are evenly distributed among zones as much as possible. For example, if there are 3 instances of an application and 3 availability zones, 1 instance will be deployed in each zone.

This significantly improves HA and quick disaster recovery. If an entire data center or availability zone goes offline, the app will remain running with little or no down time.

By default, all DEAs are part of the 'default' availability zone. To set a zone, use the kato node availabilityzone command.

For example, to see the current availability zone of a DEA:

$ kato node availabilityzone
Availability zone on node 10.0.0.41 is 'default'.

To set the availability zone:

$ kato node availabilityzone region-b
Availability zone on node 10.0.0.41 is 'region-b'.

Placement Zones

Placement Zones allow application instances to be limited to a certain set of DEA nodes. Admins can tag DEAs with a certain set of security policies or hardware characteristics with placement zones, allowing users deploying applications to choose which group of servers to run instances of a particular application on.

For example, users can choose to deploy instances of an application only to a 'production' placement zone. Only those DEA nodes in the 'production' placement zone will receive instances of that application.

DEAs have a placement_properties/zones key in their node-specific config where placement zones are specified. These are set with the kato node placementzone command. The relevant sub-commands are:

$ kato node placementzones list
$ kato node placementzones add [zone]
$ kato node placementzones remove [zone]

When deploying an application instance to a placement zone, the Cloud Controller chooses which DEA nodes receive the instance, prioritizing the DEA that is running the fewest instances of the app already. This maintains an even distribution of instances of any one app across the DEAs in the placement zone.

DEAs tagged with multiple zones will accept applications for any of those zones.

By default, apps are deployed into the 'default' zone. DEAs that don't register any zone will also accept apps for the 'default' zone (maintaining backwards compatibility).

Zones are strictly enforced. If an application requests the 'production' zone, and the DEA doesn't advertise it, the app will never be deployed to that DEA. If an app attempts to use this zone and no DEAs in the cluster provide it, the app will not deploy, displaying an error during stackato push.